Hartman, B., D.A. Cleveland. (2018, in press) The social factors that facilitate or constrain restoration management: watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow (bofedal) restoration in the Bolivian Andes. Journal of Environmental Management.
Chang, K.M., J.J. Hess, J.M. Balbus, J.J. Buonocore, D.A. Cleveland, M.L. Grabow, R. Neff, R. K. Saari, C. W. Tessum, P. Wilkinson, A. Woodward, R. DeBuen, K.L. Ebi. (2017) Ancillary health effects of climate mitigation scenarios as drivers of policy uptake: A review of air quality, transportation and diet co-benefits modeling studies. Environmental Research Letters 12(11). DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8f7b. ARTICLE ON LINE.
Cleveland, D.A. (2017) What’s on your plate? Why diet change is critical for successful climate, health and social policy. University of California Center Sacramento, Sacramento, CA. Policy Brief. VIDEO ON LINE.
Hallström, E., Q. Gee, P. Scarborough, D.A. Cleveland. (2017) A healthier US diet could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from both the food and health care systems. Climatic Change 142:199-212. DOI:10.1007/s10584-017-1912-5. ARTICLE ON LINE. About: UCSB press release by J. Cohen; Article on Food Climate Research Network; Article by T. Radford on Climate News Network; Article by L. Gore-Langton on Food Navigator; Article by A. Wittet on Food Tank; Article by A. Erickson in Reader’s Digest; Article by S. Pernett in Daily Nexus; Report by Debra Greene on KCLU radio.
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (2017) Investigating farmers’ knowledge and practice regarding crop seeds: beware your assumptions! In Indigenous knowledge: Enhancing its Contribution to Natural Resources Management. P. Sillitoe, editor, pp. 158-173. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Publishing. ISBN:9781780647050.
Cleveland, D.A., Q. Gee (2017) Plant based diets for mitigating climate change. In Vegetarian and Plant Based Diets in Health and Disease Prevention, F. Mariotti, editor, pp. 135-156. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-803968-7.00009-5. Waltham, MA: Academic Press/Elsevier. ISBN:9780128039687. ARTICLE ON LINE.
Cleveland, D.A., N. Phares, K. Nightingale, R.L. Weatherby, W. Radis, J. Ballard, M. Campagna, D. Kurtz, K. Livingston, G. Riechers, K. Wilkins. (2017) The potential for urban household vegetable gardens to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Landscape and Urban Planning 157:365-374. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.07.008. ARTICLE ONLINE + VIDEO SLIDES. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL ONLINE. About: UCSB press release by J. Cohen; Article by N. Johnson in Grist; Article by R. Mclendon in Mother Nature Network; Article by S. DeWeerdt in Conservation Magazine, U of Washington; Article at Food Climate Research Network.; Article by A. Gaspard at Urban Food Futures.
Hartman, B., D.A. Cleveland, O.A. Chadwick. (2016) Linking changes in knowledge and attitudes with successful land restoration in indigenous communities. Restoration Ecology 24(6):749-760. DOI:10.1111/rec.12347. ARTICLE ONLINE.
Cleveland, D.A., L. Copeland, G. Glasgow, M.V. McGinnis, E.R.A.N. Smith. (2016) The influence of environmentalism on attitudes toward local agriculture and urban expansion. Society and Natural Resources 29(1):88-103. DOI:10.1080/08941920.2015.1043081. ARTICLE ONLINE.
[Cleveland, D.A.] (2016) On interrogating your food and why we are alive. INTERVIEW EXCERPT ONLINE. Web extra: Food for thought. A conversation about food. INTERVIEW ONLINE. Coastlines, Winter 2016, UC Santa Barbara Alumni Association.
Cleveland, D.A. (2015) What’s on your plate? Why diet change is key for climate and food justice. Talk sponsored by Critical Issues in America, the Environmental Humanities Initiative, the Interdisciplinary Humanities Center, and the College of Letters and Science, UCSB, November 10. VIDEO ONLINE. PODCAST ONLINE.
Cleveland, D.A. (2015) How does food localization contribute to food system sustainability? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(8):410-411. DOI:10.1890/15.WB.016. ARTICLE ONLINE. [Peer reviewed letter commenting on Zumkehr and Cambell 2015.]
Cleveland, D.A., A. Carruth, D.N. Mazaroli. (2015) Operationalizing local food: Goals, actions, and indicators for alternative food systems. Agriculture & Human Values, 32:281-297. DOI:10.1007/s10460-014-9556-9. ARTICLE ONLINE.
Cleveland, D.A., E. Hallström, Q. Gee, N. Donnelly, P. Scarborough. (2014) The potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from health care via diet change in the U.S. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector (LCA Food 2014), 8-10 October 2014, San Francisco, USA, R. Schenck and D. Huizenga, editors, pp. 233-240. Vashon, WA, USA: American Center for Life Cycle Assessment (ACLCA). ARTICLE PDF.
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (2014) Genetic resources: farmer conservation and crop management. DOI:10.1081/E-ENRL-12004921. In Encyclopedia of Natural Resources: Land, Y.Q. Wang, editor-in-chief, pp. 56-62. New York: Taylor and Francis. ISBN: 978-1-4398-5245-3. ARTICLE PDF (© 2014 by Taylor & Francis).
Cleveland, D.A., Q. Gee, E. Hallström, A. DuVall, G. French. (2014) What’s on your plate? The social justice implications of climate change and the food we eat. Santa Barbara Independent, May 8. ARTICLE ONLINE.
Cleveland, D.A., N.M. Müller, A.C. Tranovich, D.N. Mazaroli, K. Hinson. (2014) Local food hubs for alternative food systems: A case study from Santa Barbara County, California. Journal of Rural Studies 35:26-36. DOI:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2014.03.008. ARTICLE ONLINE. About: UCSB press release by J. Cohen.
Cleveland, D.A. (2014) Resilience: Antidote for the Anthropocene. Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities. DOI:10.5250/resilience.1.1.06. ARTICLE ONLINE.
Cleveland, D.A. (2014) Balancing on a Planet: The Future of Food and Agriculture. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN:9780520277427. Details (and Chapter 1) at UC Press. Read Introduction. About: UCSB press release by J. Cohen; Reviews on line in: Agricultural Systems; Agriculture and Human Values; BioScience; Current Anthropology; Economic Botany; Edible Baja Arizona.
Cleveland, D.A., C.N. Radka, N.M. Müller, T.D. Watson, N.J. Rekstein, H.vanM. Wright, S.E. Hollingshead. (2011) The effect of localizing fruit and vegetable consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrition, Santa Barbara County. Environmental Science & Technology 45(10):4555–4562. DOI:10.1021/es1040317. ARTICLE PDF. (© 2011 American Chemical Society). About: UCSB Press release by G. Foulsham; Article by T. Zeller in the Huffington Post (© 2011 TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc.); Interview on Radio Causeway, KCSB FM, UCSB; Article by G. Sears in The Packer (© 2011 Vance Publishing); Interview on Freakonomics podcast (© 2012 Freakonomics, LLC). Article by S. Cone in Santa Maria Sun (© 2012 Santa Maria Sun).
Cleveland, D.A., C.N. Radka. (2011) Summary of discussions at the Santa Barbara County Agrifood Workshop: Localizing Santa Barbara County agrifood systems—research, action and policy, Presented by the Santa Barbara County Agrifood Systems (SBC AFS) Research Group, 2011 May 20-2, UCSB. REPORT PDF.
Cleveland, D.A. (2010) Sustainability via localization: Key to the future or.…greenwash? Investigating the Santa Barbara County agrifood system. Sustainability Champion faculty lecture, UCSB, October 5. POWERPOINT PRESENTATION PDF. (© 2010 DA Cleveland) About: PHOTOS of edible food system display. Article by K. Hughes about this research in the Santa Barbara News Press (© 2011 Santa Barbara News-Press). About Edibles Institute presentation on this research (2011 Jan 29): Article by B. Estabrook in The Atlantic (© 2011 The Atlantic Monthly Group); Article by P. Brasher in the DeMoines Register (© 2011 www.DesMoinesRegister.com).
Cleveland, D.A. (2010) Who pays the price for shared social responsibility? [In Letters] Science 330:446. DOI:10.1126/science.330.6003.446-a. ARTICLE PDF (© 2010 AAAS). [Comment on Gneezy et al. 2010.]
Cleveland, D.A., P. Gardinali, G. Glasgow, M. McGinnes, J. Mohr, E. Smith, M. Carney, L. Copeland. (2010) Land Use, Agriculture, and the Environment. The Central Coast Survey, September 2010. Social Science Survey Center, Benton Survey Research Lab, University of California, Santa Barbara. REPORT PDF.
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (2009) Breeding for quantitative variables. Part 1: Farmers’ and scientists’ knowledge and practice in variety choice and plant selection. In Plant Breeding and Farmer Participation, S. Ceccarelli, E.P. Guimarães and E. Weltzien, editors, pp. 323-366. Rome, Italy: FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization), in collaboration with ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas), Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic, and ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics), Patancheru, India. ISBN:978-92-5-106382-8. ARTICLE PDF (© 2009 FAO).
Cleveland, D.A. (2009) Indigenous environmental knowledge. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, J.B. Callicott and R. Frodeman, editors-in-chief, Vol. 2, pp. 318-322. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, a part of Gale, Cenage Learning. ISBN:9780028661407. ARTICLE PDF (© 2009 Macmillan Reference).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, F. Aragón Cuevas. (2008) Food globalization and local diversity: the case of tejate. Current Anthropology 49(2):281-290. DOI:10.1086/ 527562. ARTICLE PDF; Online text with SUPPLEMENTS (PDF version of SUPPLEMENTS); PRESS RELEASE (PDF version of PRESS RELEASE) (© 2008 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, G.E. Glasgow, S.H. Sweeney, F. Aragón Cuevas, H. Ríos Labrada, M.R. Fuentes Lopez. (2008) Testing assumptions underlying economic research on transgenic food crops for Third World farmers: evidence from Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico. Ecological Economics 67(4):667-682. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.01.031. ARTICLE PDF; SUPPLEMENT PDF (© 2008 Elsevier B.V.).
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri. (2007) Extending Darwin’s analogy: bridging differences in concepts of selection between farmers, biologists, and plant breeders. Economic Botany 61(2):121-136. DOI:10.1663/0013-0001(2007)61[121:EDABDI]2.0.CO;2. ARTICLE PDF (© 2007 The New York Botanical Garden Press).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (2007) Tejate: Theobroma cacao and T. bicolor in a traditional beverage from Oaxaca, Mexico. Food and Foodways 15(1-2):107-118. DOI:10.1080/07409710701260131. ARTICLE PDF (© 2007 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC).
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri. (2007) Farmer knowledge and scientist knowledge in sustainable agricultural development: ontology, epistemology and praxis. In Local Science versus Global Science: Approaches To Indigenous Knowledge in International Development. Pp. 211-229. P. Sillitoe, editor. Oxford, UK: Berghahn Books. ISBN:978-1-84545-014-4. ARTICLE PDF (© 2007 Paul Sillitoe).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, F. Aragón Cuevas. (2006) Transgenic crops and crop varietal diversity: the case of maize in Mexico. BioScience 56(6):503-513. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[503:TCACVD]2.0.C. ABSTRACT; ARTICLE PDF (© 2006 American Institute of Biological Sciences). Response from Soleri and colleagues [to Ortiz-García et al. letter]. BioScience 56(9):709-710. LETTER PDF (© 2006 American Institute of Biological Sciences).
Lacy, S.M., D.A. Cleveland, D. Soleri. (2006) Farmer choice of sorghum varieties in southern Mali. Human Ecology 34(3):331-353. DOI:10.1007/s10745-006-9021-5. ARTICLE PDF (© 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.).
Cleveland, D.A. (2006) What kind of social science does the CGIAR, and the world, need? Culture & Agriculture 28:4-9. DOI:10.1525/cag.2006.28.1.4. ARTICLE PDF (© 2006 American Anthropological Association).Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri, F. Aragón Cuevas, J. Crossa, P. Gepts (2005) Detecting (trans)gene flow to landraces in centers of crop origin: lessons from the case of maize in Mexico. Environmental Biosafety Research 4(4):197-208. DOI:10.1051/ebr:2006006. ABSTRACT (English/español); ARTICLE PDF (© 2006 ISBR, EDP Sciences).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, F. Aragón Cuevas, H. Ríos Labrada, M.R. Fuentes Lopez, S.H. Sweeney. (2005) Understanding the potential impact of transgenic crops in traditional agriculture: maize farmers' perspectives in Cuba, Guatemala & Mexico. Environmental Biosafety Research 4(3):141-166. DOI: 10.1051/ebr:2005019. ABSTRACT (English/español); ARTICLE PDF (© 2006 ISBR, EDP Sciences).
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri. (2005) Rethinking the risk management process for genetically engineered crop varieties in small-scale, traditionally based agriculture. Ecology and Society 10(1): 9. [published online]. ABSTRACT; ARTICLE PDF (© 2005 the authors).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (2004) Farmer selection and conservation of crop varieties. Encyclopedia of Plant & Crop Science. Pp. 433-438. R.M. Goodman, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© 2004 Marcel Dekker, Inc.).
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri, editors. (2002) Farmers, Scientists and Plant Breeding: Integrating Knowledge and Practice. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International. BOOK AT CABI; CHAPTER ABSTRACTS ONLINE. ISBN:0851995853.
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri. (2002) Introduction: farmers, scientists and plant breeding:knowledge, practice,and the possibilities for collaboration, in Farmers, Scientists and Plant Breeding: Integrating Knowledge and Practice. Pp. 1-18. DOI:10.1079/9780851995854.0001. D.A. Cleveland and D. Soleri,eds. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International. ISBN:0851995853. ABSTRACT ON LINE. ARTICLE PDF (© 2002 CAB International)
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, S.E. Smith, S. Ceccarelli, S. Grando, R.B. Rana, D. Rijal, H. Rios L. (2002) Understanding farmers' knowledge as the basis for collaboration with plant breeders: Methodological cevelopment and examples from ongoing research in Mexico, Syria, Cuba, and Nepal. In Farmers, Scientists and Plant Breeding: Integrating Knowledge and Practice. Pp. 19-60. DOI:10.1079/9780851995854.0019. D.A. Cleveland and D. Soleri, eds. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International. ISBN:0851995853. ABSTRACT ONLINE. ARTICLE PDF (© 2002 CAB International).
Ríos Labrada, H., D. Soleri, D.A. Cleveland. (2002) Conceptual changes in Cuban plant breeding in response to a national socioeconomic crisis: The example of pumpkins. In Farmers, Scientists and Plant Breeding: Integrating Knowledge and Practice. Pp. 213-237. DOI: 10.1079/9780851995854.0213. D.A. Cleveland and D. Soleri, eds. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International. ISBN:0851995853. ABSTRACT ONLINE. ARTICLE PDF (© 2002 CAB International).
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri. (2002) Indigenous and scientific knowledge of plant breeding: Similarities, differences, and implications for collaboration. In Participating in Development: Approaches to Indigenous Knowledge. ASA Monographs, Vol. 39. Pp. 206-234. P. Sillitoe, A. Bicker, and J. Pottier, editors. London: Routledge. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© 2002 Association of Social Anthropologists & the authors).
Cleveland, D.A. (2001) Is plant breeding science objective truth or social construction? The case of yield stability. Agriculture and Human Values 18(3):250-271. DOI:10.1023/A:1011923222493. ABSTRACT; ARTICLE PDF (corrected figure) (© 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (2001) Farmers' genetic perceptions regarding their crop populations: An example with maize in the central valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Economic Botany 55(1):106-128. ABSTRACT; ARTICLE PDF (© 2001 The New York Botanical Garden Press).
Cleveland, D.A., D.Soleri, S.E. Smith. (2000) A biological framework for understanding farmers' plant breeding. Economic Botany 54(3):377-394. ABSTRACT; ARTICLE PDF (© 2000 The New York Botanical Garden Press).
Soleri, D., S.E. Smith, D.A. Cleveland (2000) Evaluating the potential for farmer and plant breeder collaboration: A case study of farmer maize selection in Oaxaca, Mexico. Euphytica 116(1): 41-57. ARTICLE PDF (© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers).
Cleveland, D.A., D.Soleri, S.E. Smith. (1999) Farmer Plant Breeding from a Biological Perspective: Implications for Collaborative Plant Breeding. CIMMYT Economics Working Paper 99-10. v, 32 pp. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT. PAPER PDF.
Cleveland, D.A. (1998) Indian agriculture, United States agriculture, and sustainable agriculture: Science and advocacy. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 22(3):13-29. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF.
Smale, M., D. Soleri, D.A. Cleveland, D. Louette, E.B. Rice, J.-L. Blanco, A. Aguirre. (1998) Collaborative plant breeding as an incentive for on-farm conservation of genetic resources: Economic issues from studies in Mexico, In Farmers, Gene Banks, and Crop Breeding: Economic Analyses of Diversity in Wheat, Maize, and Rice. M. Smale, editor. Pp. 239-257. Boston, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© 1998 by Kluwer Academic Publishers).
Cleveland, D.A., S.C. Murray. (1997) The world's crop genetic resources and the rights of indigenous farmers. Current Anthropology 37(4): 477-515. ABSTRACT; ARTICLE PDF (© 1997 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research).
Cleveland, D.A. (1997) Are urban gardens an efficient use of resources? Arid Lands Newsletter [University of Arizona] No. 42, article No. 4. ARTICLE ONLINE.
Mabry, J., D.A. Cleveland. (1996) The relevance of indigenous irrigation: A comparative analysis of sustainability. In Canals and Communities: Small-Scale Irrigation Systems. J. Mabry, editor. Pp. 227-260. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. ARTICLE PDF (© 1996 Arizona Board of Regents).
Cleveland, D.A., F. Bowannie, Jr., D. Eriacho, A. Laahty, E. Perramond (1995) Zuni farming and United States government policy: The politics of cultural and biological diversity. Agriculture and Human Values 12(3):2-18. DOI:10.1007/BF02217150. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF.
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri, S.E. Smith. (1994) Do folk crop varieties have a role in sustainable agriculture? BioScience 44:740-751. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© 1994 American Institute of Biological Sciences).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, with D.Eriacho, F. Bowannie Jr., A. Laahty, and the Zuni Community. (1994) Gifts from the Creator: Intellectual property rights and folk crop varieties. In Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples, A Sourcebook. T. Greaves, editor. Pp. 21-40. Oklahoma City, OK: Society for Applied Anthropology. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© 1994 Society for Applied Anthropology).
Soleri D., D.A. Cleveland, eds. (1993-1994) Zuni Farming, For Today and Tomorrow. Occasional Newsletter of the Zuni Sustainable Agriculture Project, and the Zuni Folk Varieties Project. Number 1, Number 2, Number 3 PDFs.
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (1993) Seeds of strength for Hopis and Zunis. Seedling [Barcelona, Spain: GRAIN] 10(4):13-21. ARTICLE PDF.
Cleveland, D,A. (1993) Is variety more than the spice of life? Diversity, stability, and sustainable agriculture. Culture and Agriculture 13(45-46):2-7. ARTICLE PDF.
Cleveland, D.A., D. Soleri. (1991) Food from Dryland Gardens: An Ecological, Nutritional,and Social Approach to Small-ScaleHousehold Food Production. xiii, 387 pp. Tucson, AZ: Center for People, Food and Environment (with support from the United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]). ISBN:978-0962799709. A Choice Outstanding Academic Book, 1992. ABSTRACT and CONTENTS. *Electronic version published on line in Food and Nutrition Library 2.2. *Republished 2002 by ECHO in CD-ROM format. About: Reviews.
Cleveland, D.A. (1991) New crop varieties in a Green Revolution for Africa: Implications for sustainability and equity. In The Political Economy of African Famine. R.E. Downs, D.O. Kerner and S.P. Reyna, editors. Pp. 325-338. NY: Gordon & Breach. ARTICLE PDF (© 1990 by OPA (Amsterdam) B.V.).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland, T.R. Frankenberger. (1991) Gardens and Vitamin A: A Review of Recent Literature. Report No. IN-2, 32 pp. Arlington, Virginia: Vitamin A Field Support Project, International Science and Technology Institute. REPORT PDF.
Cleveland, D.A. (1990) Development alternatives and the African food crisis. In African Food Systems In Crisis. Part Two: Contending with Change. R. Huss-Ashmore and S. Katz, editors. Pp. 181-206. NY: Gordon & Breach. ARTICLE PDF (© 1990 by OPA (Amsterdam) B.V.).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland. (1989) Dryland household gardens in development. Arid Lands Newsletter [University of Arizona] No. 29:4-10. ARTICLE PDF (© the authors and ALNL, U. of Arizona).
Cleveland, D.A. (1989) Developmental stage age groups and African population structure: The Kusasi of the west African savanna. American Anthropologist 91:401-413. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© 1989 American Anthropological Association).
Soleri, D., D.A. Cleveland (1988) Managing water in arid gardens: Simple, efficient, economical methods. Fine Gardening, No. 4:14-18. ARTICLE PDF (© 1988 the authors).
Cleveland, D.A. (1986) The political economy of fertility regulation: The Kusasi of savanna west Africa (Ghana). In Culture and Reproduction: An Anthropological Critique of Demographic Transition Theory. W.P. Handwerker, editor. Pp. 263-293. Boulder, CO: Westview. ABSTRACT. ARTICLE PDF (© Westview Press).
Cleveland, D.A. (1986) Culture and horticulture in Mexico. Culture & Agriculture 7(29):1-5. ARTICLE PDF.
Cleveland, D.A. (1980) The Population Dynamics of Subsistence Agriculture in the West African Savanna: A Village in Northeast Ghana. Ph.D. dissertation, Tucson: University of Arizona. ABSTRACT AND PDF ON LINE.
Netting, R.M., D.A. Cleveland, F. Stier. (1980) The conditions of agricultural intensification in the West African Savannah. In Sahelian Social Development, S.P. Reyna, editor. Pp. 187-505. Abidjan, Ivory Coast: Regional Economic Development Services Office, West Africa, United States Agency for International Development. ARTICLE PDF.